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Evolution of the Big Bang Theory.



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Genetics Depot



Hardest Substances

  • Diamond is the hardest substance in the world.
  • Hafnium Carbide is the hardest metal in the world (2300 Knoop)

Hardness is measured by Moh's Scale in science. Which is interpreted as ability to resist scratching. On a scale of 1 to 10, with 10 being the hardest and most scratch resistant, here is how some minerals stack up on the Moh's scale. Note that each mineral down the list is able to scratch the mineral(s) above it.
  1. Talc
  2. Gypsum
  3. Calcite
  4. Fluorite
  5. Apatite
  6. Feldspar
  7. Quartz
  8. Topaz
  9. Corundum (rubies or sapphires)
  10. Diamond

Other systems for testing hardness:
  • Brinell - Uses Tungsten Carbide ball
  • Rockwell
  • Vickers - Uses diamond to make indent.
  • Knoop - Uses diamond to make indent.

Resolutions

Television Resolutions

With everything being digitized in the world like televisions, resolution becomes more and more important in display quality for viewing video on Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs), plasma displays, and projector displays. In the beginning analog televisions read the analog signals and reproduced the pictures about 50-60 frames a second. Each frame had half of the picture (interlaced), so two frames were needed to create one complete picture. So in essence, about 30 complete pictures were drawn per second on the screen. Because the quality of the analog signal determines the resolution that can be displayed, having a higher resolution TV did not necessarily mean higher resolution pictures. That is because the analog signal for broadcast TV didn't have enough info packed inside it to produce more resolution than needed on the average TV set. There were three major types of analog TV signals, the NTSC, PAL, and SECAM. Each system varied in number of scan lines (number of horizontal lines going from top to bottom), but only a subset of those lines were viewable. The unused lines allowed storing Closed Caption and other information. The standards lock in the number of lines, but the number of horizontal dots produceable in each line varied depending on the quality of the analog broadcast signal. On average, broadcast TV only had enough information inside a horizontal line to reproduce about 330 different dots. However, since we are guaranteed a number of vertical dots (scan lines), we would need horizontal dots greater than the number of vertical dots so that we at least get similar horizontal resolution with each dot close to a square or round pixel. If the signal did not provide that high of a resolution capability, too bad, we just extract and average them out from the signal (which can mean duplicate dots). Below are the three major signals and their properties.
  • NTSC
    • North Television Standards Committee
    • 525 scan lines (about 480 viewable)
    • 720x480 ("max horizontal dots" x "viewable lines" when dots are square or taller)
    • 29.97 frames per second
    • Countries of use:
      • Canada
      • Mexico
      • United States
  • PAL
    • Phase Alternation by Line
    • 626 scan lines (about 576 viewable)
    • 720x576 ("max horizontal dots" x "viewable lines" when dots are square or taller)
    • 25 frames per second
    • Countries of use:
      • Australia
      • Austria
      • Germany
      • Switzerland
      • United Kingdom
  • SECAM
    • Sequential Couleur Avec Memoire or Sequential Colour with Memory
    • 626 scan lines (about 576 viewable)
    • 720x576 ("max horizontal dots" x "viewable lines" when dots are square or taller)
    • 25 frames per second
    • Countries of use:
      • France
  • MESECAM
    • ME-SECAM
    • 626 scan lines (about 576 viewable)
    • 720x576 ("max horizontal dots" x "viewable lines" when dots are square or taller)
    • 25 frames per second
    • Countries of use:
      • Russia
  • EDTV (Enhanced Definition TeleVision)
    • 852x480
  • HDTV (High Definition TeleVision)
    • SD (Standard Definition)
      • 640x480
      • 704x480
    • HD (High Definition)
      • 1280x720
      • 1920x1080
  • UHDV (Ultra High Definition Video)
    • 7680x4320



Storage Media Resolutions


With the advent of television, next came a way to store the TV broadcast signal on tape or disc in order to view later. This led to many formats (analog and digital) for storing the TV signal. In the analog portion (VHS and SVHS) the resolution are official ones recommended for converting to digital storage, along with average capability of the actual media (dots per horizontal line).
  • VHS (Video Home System)
    • 220-240 horizontal dots average on actual media.
    • 352x240 NTSC
    • 352x288 PAL
  • SVHS (Super Video Home System)
    • 400 horizontal dots average on actual media.
    • 352x480 NTSC
    • 352x576 PAL
  • 32mm film (Theatre quality)
    • 5000x5000 crystals average on each picture of actual film.
    • 4096x4096 resolution often used to convert to digital format.
  • CD (Compact Disc)
    • 780 nm infrared laser
    • 700MB per layer
  • VCD (Video Compact Disc)
    • 352x240 NTSC
    • 352x288 PAL
  • CVD (Chinese Video Disc)
    • 352x480 NTSC
    • 352x576 PAL
  • SVCD (Super Video Compact Disc)
    • 480x480 NTSC
    • 480x576 PAL
  • LD (Laser Disc)
    • 528x480 NTSC
    • 528x576 PAL
  • DVD (Digital Versatile Disc)
    • 650 nm red laser
    • 4.7GB per layer
    • 720x480 NTSC
    • 720x576 PAL
    • Disc Types
      • DVD-R: (Digital Versatile Disc-Recordable)
      • DVD+R: (Digital Versatile Disc+Recordable)
      • DVD-RW: (Digital Versatile Disc-ReWritable)
      • DVD+RW: (Digital Versatile Disc+ReWritable)
      • DVD-ROM (Digital Versatile Disc-Read Only Memory)
      • DVD-RAM: (Digital Versatile Disc-Random Access Memory)
    • DVD5
      • Single Sided
      • Single Layer
      • 4.7 Gigabytes
    • DVD9
      • Single Sided
      • Dual Layers
      • 8.5 Gigabytes
      • Incompatible with DVD-RW and DVD+RW
    • DVD10
      • Double Sided
      • Single Layer
      • 9.4 Gigabytes
    • DVD14
      • Double Sided
      • Single Layer on one side. Dual Layer on other side.
      • 13.2 Gigabytes
    • DVD18
      • Double Sided
      • Dual Layers
      • 17 Gigabytes
    • DVD Region Codes
      • 0: Discs playable worldwide (but PAL discs on PAL-compatible unit, and NTSC discs on NTSC-compatible unit)
      • 1: Bermuda, United States, U.S. territories, Canada
      • 2: Europe, Japan, Middle East, Egypt, South Africa, Greenland, Swaziland, Lesotho
      • 3: Taiwan, South Korea, Hong Kong, Macau, Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Southeast Asia
      • 4: Mexico, South and Central America, Australia, New Zealand, Caribbean
      • 5: Russia, Eastern Europe, India, most of Africa, Mongolia, North Korea
      • 6: Mainland China
      • 7: Reserved for Unspeciied Special Use
      • 8: Reserved for International venues like Cruise Ships, Airlines, etc.
  • EVD (Enhanced Video Disc)
    • China standard
  • HD-DVD (High Definition Digital Versatile Disc)
    • 405 nm blue-violet laser
    • 15 GB per layer
    • No Region Codes
  • Blu-Ray Disc
    • 405 nm blue-violet laser
    • 25 GB per layer
    • Blu-Ray Region Codes
      1. (A): North and South America, East Asia (except China)
      2. (B): Europe, Middle East, Africa and Oceania
      3. (C): China, Russia, South Asia





    Conferencing and Video Camera Resolutions

  • SQSIF (Sub Quarter Source Input Format)
    • 80x60
    • 4,800 Pixels
  • QQCIF (Quarter Quarter Common Intermediate Format)
    • 88x72
    • 6,336 Pixels
  • SQCIF (Sub Quarter Common Intermediate Format)
    • 128x96
    • 12,288 Pixels
  • QQVGA (Quarter Quarter Video Graphics Array)
    • 160x120
    • 19,200 Pixels
  • QSIF (Quarter Source Input Format)
    • 160x120
    • 19,200 Pixels
  • QCIF (Quarter Common Intermediate Format)
    • 176x144
    • 25,344 Pixels
  • SSIF (Sub Source Input Format)
    • 240x180
    • 43,200 Pixels
  • SIF (Source Input Format)
    • 320x240
    • 76,800 Pixels
  • QVGA (Quarter Video Graphics Array)
    • 320x240
    • 76,800 Pixels
  • CIF (Common Intermediate Format)
    • 352x288
    • 101,376 Pixels
  • 4CIF (4 Times Common Intermediate Format)
    • 704x576
    • 405,504 Pixels
  • 16CIF (16 Times Common Intermediate Format)
    • 1408x1152
    • 1,622,016 Pixels



    Computer Screen Resolutions


    The following are names for common resolutions (or screen sizes). Note that for multiple resolutions in a given format, the bold-faced resolution is the common, modern, definition for that format. This is especially true for the graphics adapters used on computers, which supported multiple resolutions at different color depths. In addition, the modern definition pertains to screen size only, and number of colors is irrelevant.

  • CGA (Color Graphics Adapter)
    • 640x200 - 2 colors
    • 320x200 - 4 colors
      • 64,000 Pixels
      • 16/10 H/V Ratio
    • 160x200 - 16 colors
  • HVGA (Half Video Graphics Array)
    • 640x240 (Microsoft definition)
    • 153,600Pixels
  • EGA (Enhanced Graphics Adapter)
    • 320x100 - 16 colors
    • 640x200 - 16 colors
    • 640x350 - 16 colors
      • 224,000 Pixels
      • 1.83 H/V Ratio
  • PGA (Professional Graphics Adapter)
    • 640x480 - 256 Colors
    • 307,200 Pixels
    • 4/3 H/V Ratio
  • VGA (Video Graphics Array)
    • 640x480 - 16 colors (Mode 12h) (VESA definition)
      • 307,200 Pixels
      • 4/3 H/V Ratio
    • 320x200 - 256 colors (Mode 13h)
    • 320x240 - 256 colors (Mode X)
  • WVGA (Wide Video Graphics Array)
    • 848x480
    • 852x480
      • 408,960 Pixels
      • 16/9 H/V Ratio
  • XVGA
    • 800x480 (Microsoft definition)
    • 384,000 Pixels
  • SVGA (Super Video Graphics Array)
    • 800x600 (VESA definition)
    • 480,000 Pixels
    • 4/3 H/V Ratio
  • XGA (eXtended Graphics Array)
    • 1024x768 (VESA definition)
    • 786,432 Pixels
    • 4/3 H/V Ratio
  • WXGA (Wide eXtended Graphics Array)
    • 1280x768
    • 1280x800
    • 1360x768
    • 1366x768
      • 1,049,088 Pixels
      • 16/9 H/V Ratio
  • WXGA+ (Wide eXtended Graphics Array Plus)
    • 1280x800
    • 1440x900
  • QVGA (Quad Video Graphics Array)
    • 1280x960
    • 1,228,800 Pixels
  • SXGA (Super eXtended Graphics Array)
    • 1280x1024 (VESA definition)
    • 1,310,720 Pixels
    • 5/4 H/V Ratio
  • SXGA+ (Super eXtended Graphics Array Plus)
    • 1400x1050
  • WSXGA (Wide Super eXtended Graphics Array)
    • 1600x900
    • 1600x1024
      • 1,638,400 Pixels
      • 1.56 H/V Ratio
  • WSXGA+ (Wide Super eXtended Graphics Array Plus)
    • 1680x1050
  • UXGA (Ultra eXtended Graphics Array)
    • 1600x1200 (VESA definition)
    • 1,920,000 Pixels
    • 4/3 H/V Ratio
  • WUXGA (Wide Ultra eXtended Graphics Array)
    • 1920x1200
    • 2,304,000 Pixels
    • 16/10 H/V Ratio
  • QXGA (Quad eXtended Graphics Array)
    • 2048 x 1536 (VESA definition)
    • 3,145,728 Pixels
    • 4/3 H/V Ratio
  • WQXGA (Wide Quad eXtended Graphics Array)
    • 25601600
    • 4,096,000 Pixels
    • 16/10 H/V Ratio
  • QSXGA (Quad Super eXtended Graphics Array)
    • 2560x2048
    • 5,242,880 Pixels
    • 5/4 H/V Ratio
  • QSXGA+ (Quad Super eXtended Graphics Array Plus)
    • 2800x2100
  • WQSXGA (Wide Quad Super eXtended Graphics Array)
    • 3200x2048
    • 6,553,600 Pixels
    • 1.56 H/V Ratio
  • QUXGA (Quad Ultra eXtended Graphics Array)
    • 3200x2400
    • 7,680,000 Pixels
    • 4/3 H/V Ratio
  • WQUXGA (Wide Quad Ultra eXtended Graphics Array)
    • 3840x2400
    • 9,216,000 Pixels
    • 16/10 H/V Ratio
  • HSXGA (Hex Super eXtended Graphics Array)
    • 51204096
    • 20,971,520 Pixels
    • 5/4 H/V Ratio
  • WHSXGA (Wide Hex Super eXtended Graphics Array)
    • 64004096
    • 26,214,400 Pixels
    • 1.56 H/V Ratio
  • HUXGA (Hex Ultra eXtended Graphics Array)
    • 64004800
    • 30,720,000 Pixels
    • 4/3 H/V Ratio
  • WHUXGA (Wide Hex Ultra eXtended Graphics Array)
    • 76804800
    • 36,864,000 Pixels
    • 16/10 H/V Ratio

Computer Sizes and Quantifiers


Bits and Bytes

De Facto DefinitionsMarketing Definitions
  • bit (0 or 1)
    • Basic unit (Can represent 2 values)
    • Abbreviation: b
  • byte
    • 8 bits (00000000 to 11111111)
    • Basic unit (Can represent 256 values)
    • Abbreviation: B
  • kilobyte
    • 10241 bytes
    • 1,024 bytes
  • megabyte
    • 1,024 kilobytes
    • 10242 bytes
    • 1,048,576 bytes
  • gigabyte
    • 1,024 megabytes
    • 10243 bytes
    • 1,073,741,824 bytes
  • terabyte
    • 1,024 gigabytes
    • 10244 bytes
    • 1,099,511,627,776 bytes
  • petabyte
    • 1,024 terabytes
    • 10245 bytes
    • 1,125,899,906,842,624 bytes
  • exabyte
    • 1,024 petabytes
    • 10246 bytes
    • 1,152,921,504,606,846,976 bytes
  • zettabyte
    • 1,024 exabytes
    • 10247 bytes
    • 1,180,591,620,717,411,303,424 bytes
  • yottabyte
    • 1,024 zettabytes
    • 10248 bytes
    • 1,208,925,819,614,629,174,706,176 bytes
  • zeptobyte (Note: Unofficial and does not follow SI order)
    • 1,024 yottabytes
    • 10249 bytes
    • 1,237,940,039,285,380,274,899,124,224 bytes
  • yoctobyte (Note: Unofficial and does not follow SI order)
    • 1,024 zeptobytes
    • 102410 bytes
    • 1,267,650,600,228,229,401,496,703,205,376 bytes
  • bit (0 or 1)
    • Basic unit (Can represent 2 values)
    • Abbreviation: b
  • byte
    • 8 bits (00000000 to 11111111)
    • Basic unit (Can represent 256 values)
    • Abbreviation: B
  • kilobyte
    • 10001 bytes
    • 1,000 bytes
  • megabyte
    • 1,000 kilobytes
    • 10242 bytes
    • 1,000,000 bytes
  • gigabyte
    • 1,000 megabytes
    • 10003 bytes
    • 1,000,000,000 bytes
  • terabyte
    • 1,000 gigabytes
    • 10004 bytes
    • 1,000,000,000,000 bytes
  • petabyte
    • 1,000 terabytes
    • 10005 bytes
    • 1,000,000,000,000,000 bytes
  • exabyte
    • 1,000 petabytes
    • 10006 bytes
    • 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 bytes
  • zettabyte
    • 1,000 exabytes
    • 10007 bytes
    • 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 bytes
  • yottabyte
    • 1,000 zettabytes
    • 10008 bytes
    • 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 bytes
  • zeptobyte (Note: Unofficial and does not follow SI order)
    • 1,000 yottabytes
    • 10009 bytes
    • 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 bytes
  • yoctobyte (Note: Unofficial and does not follow SI order)
    • 1,000 zeptobytes
    • 100010 bytes
    • 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 bytes
Need to calculate large arbitrary precision numbers like above? Use Virtual Calc 2000



Bits and Bytes (Official Definitions from IEC 60027-2)

  • bit (0 or 1)
    • Basic unit (Can represent 2 values)
    • Abbreviation: b (unofficial abbreviation)
  • byte
    • 8 bits (00000000 to 11111111)
    • Basic unit (Can represent 256 values)
    • Abbreviation: B (unofficial abbreviation)
  • kibibyte (KiB)
    • 10241 bytes
    • 1,024 bytes
  • mebibyte (MiB)
    • 1,024 kibibytes
    • 10242 bytes
    • 1,048,576 bytes
  • gibibyte (GiB)
    • 1,024 mebibytes
    • 10243 bytes
    • 1,073,741,824 bytes
  • tebibyte (TiB)
    • 1,024 gibibytes
    • 10244 bytes
    • 1,099,511,627,776 bytes
  • pebibyte (PiB)
    • 1,024 tebibytes
    • 10245 bytes
    • 1,125,899,906,842,624 bytes
  • exbibyte (EiB)
    • 1,024 pebibytes
    • 10246 bytes
    • 1,152,921,504,606,846,976 bytes

ISO Quantifiers


Short Scale (103+3n)Long Scale (106n)DE (106n)Greek-based name
SI PrefixSymbol
10-24 septillionthquadrillionthQuadrillionstel

Yocto-y
10-21 sextillionth trilliardthTrilliardstel

Zepto-z
10-18 quintillionthtrillionth Trillionstel

Atto-a
10-15 quadrillionth billiardthBilliardstel

Femto-f
10-12 trillionth billionth
Billionstel

Pico-p
10-9 billionth milliardth
Milliardstel

Nano-n
10-6 millionthMillionstel
Micro-µ
10-5 hundredthousandth
Hunderttausendstel
Centi-c
10-4 tenthousandth
Zehntausendstel
Deci-d
10-3 thousandth
Tausendstel

Milli-m
10-2 hundredth
Hundertstel

Centi-c
10-1 tenth
Zehntel

Deci-d
100 one
eins
 

101 ten
zehn

Deka-dk
102 hundred
hundert

Hecto-h
103 thousand
tausend
 Kilo-k
104 tenthousand
zehntausend

Myria-ma
105 hundredthousand
hunderttausend

Hectokilo-hk
106 millionMillion
Mega-M
109 billionmilliard MilliardegillionGiga-G
1012 trillionbillion BilliontetrillionTera-T
1015 quadrillionbilliard Billiarde
pentillionPeta-P
1018 quintilliontrillion Trillion
hexillionExa-E
1021 sexilliontrilliardTrilliarde heptillionZetta-Z
1024 septillionquadrillionQuadrillion oktillionYotta-Y
1027 octillionquadrilliardQuadrilliarde ennillion

1030 nonillionquintillionQuintillion dekillion

1033 decillionquintilliardQuintilliarde hendekillion

1036 undecillionsextillionSextillion dodekillion

1039 duodecillionsextilliardSextilliarde trisdekillion

1042 tredecillionseptillionSeptillion tetradekillion

1045 quattuordecillionseptilliardSeptilliarde pentadekillion

1048 quindecillionoctillionOktillion hexadekillion

1051 sexdecillionoctilliardOktilliarde heptadekillion

1054 septdecillion,
septendecillion
nonillion,
noventillion
Nonillion oktadekillion

1057 octodecillionnonilliard,
noventilliard
Nonilliarde enneadekillion

1060 novemdecilliondecillionDezillion icosillion

1063 vigintilliondecilliardDezilliarde icosihenillion

1066 unvigintillion
undecillion
Undezillion icosidillion

1069 duovigintillion
undecilliard
Undezilliarde icositrillion

1072 trevigintillion
dodecillion,
duodecillion
Duodezillion icositetrillion

1075 quattuorvigintillion
dodecilliard,  duodecilliard
Doudezilliarde icosipentillion

1078 quinvigintillion
tredecillion
Tredezillion icosihexillion

1081 sexvigintillion
tredecilliard
Tredizilliarde icosiheptillion

1084 septvigintillion,
septenvigintillion
quattuordecillion
Quattuordezillion icosioktillion

1087 octovigintillion
quattuordecilliard
Quattuordezilliarde icosiennillion

1090 novemvigintillion
quindecillion
Quindezillion triacontillion

1093 trigintillion
quindecilliardQuindezilliarde triacontahenillion

1096 untrigintillion
sexdecillionSexdezillion triacontadillion

1099 duotrigintillion
sexdecilliardSexdezilliarde triacontatrillion

10100 googol
(10 duotrigintillion)
googol
(10 sexdecilliard)
ein Googol
(10 Sexdezilliarden)



10102 tretrigintillion
septendecillion
Septendezillion



10105 quattuortrigintillion
septendecilliardSeptendezilliard


10108 quintrigintillion
octodecillionOktodezillion


10111 sextrigintillion
octodecilliardOktodezilliard


10114 septtrigintillion,
septentrigintillion
novemdecillionNovemdezillion


10117 octotrigintillion
novemdecilliardNovemdezilliard


10120 novemtrigintillion
vigintillionVigintillion


10123 quardragintillionvigintilliard Vigintilliarde  

10126 unquardragintillionunvigintillion Unvigintillion  

10129 duoquardragintillionunvigintilliard Unvigintilliarde  

10132 trequardragintillion duovigintillionDuovigintillion  

10135 quattuorquardragintillion duovigintilliardDuovigintilliarde  

10138 quinquardragintillion trevigintillionTrevigintillion  

10141 sexquardragintilliontrevigintilliard Trevigintilliarde  

10144 septquardragintillion,
septenquardragintillion
quattuorvigintillionQuattuorvigintillion  

10147 octoquardragintillion quattuorvigintilliardQuattuorvigintilliarde  

10150 novemquardragintillion quinvigintillionQuinvigintillion  

10153 quinquagintillion quinvigintilliardQuinvigintilliarde  

10156 unquinquagintillion sexvigintillion Sexvigintillion  

10159 duoquinquagintillionsexvigintilliard Sexvigintilliarde  

10162 trequinquagintillion septenvigintillion Septenvigintillion  

10165 quattuorquinquagintillion septenvigintilliard Septenvigintilliarde  

10168 quinquinquagintillion octovigintillion Oktovigintillion  

10171 sexquinquagintillion octovigintilliard Oktovigintilliarde  

10174 septquinquagintillion,
septenquinquagintillion
novemvigintillion Novemvigintillion  

10177 octoquinquagintillion novemvigintilliard Novemvigintilliarde  

10180 novemquinquagintillion trigintillion Trigintillion  

10183 sexagintilliontrigintilliard Trigintilliarde  

10186 unsexagintillionuntrigintillion Untrigintillion  

10189 duosexagintillionuntrigintilliard Untrigintilliarde  

10192 tresexagintillionduotrigintillion Duotrigintillion  

10195 quattuorsexagintillionduotrigintilliard Duotrigintilliarde  

10198 quinsexagintilliontretrigintillion Tretrigintillion  

10201 sexsexagintilliontretrigintilliard Tretrigintilliarde  

10204 septsexagintillion,
septensexagintillion
quattuortrigintillion Quattuortrigintillion  

10207 octosexagintillionquattuortrigintilliard Quattuortrigintilliarde  

10210 novemsexagintillionquintrigintillion Quintrigintillion  

10213 septuagintillion quintrigintilliard Quintrigintilliarde  

10216 unseptuagintillion sextrigintillion Sextrigintillion  

10219 duoseptuagintillion sextrigintilliardSextrigintilliarde 

10222 treseptuagintillion septentrigintillion Septentrigintillion  

10225 quattuorseptuagintillion septentrigintilliard Septentrigintilliarde  

10228 quinseptuagintillion octotrigintillion Oktotrigintillion  

10231 sexseptuagintillion octotrigintilliard Oktotrigintilliarde  

10234 septseptuagintillion,
septenseptuagintillion
novemtrigintillion Novemtrigintillion  

10237 octoseptuagintillion novemtrigintilliard Novemtrigintilliarde  

10240 novemseptuagintillion quardragintillion Quardragintillion  

10243 octogintillionquardragintilliard Quardragintilliarde  

10246 unoctogintillionunquardragintillion Unquardragintillion  

10249 duooctogintillionunquardragintilliard Unquardragintilliarde  

10252 treoctogintillionduoquardragintillion Duoquardragintillion  

10255 quattuoroctogintillionduoquardragintilliard Duoquardragintilliarde  

10258 quinoctogintilliontrequardragintillion Trequardragintillion  

10261 sexoctogintilliontrequardragintilliard Trequardragintilliarde  

10264 septoctogintillion,
septenoctogintillion
quattuorquardragintillion Quattuorquardragintillion  

10267 octooctogintillionquattuorquardragintilliard Quattuorquardragintilliarde  

10270 novemoctogintillionquinquardragintillion Quinquardragintillion  

10273 nonagintillion quinquardragintilliard Quinquardragintilliarde  

10276 unnonagintillion sexquardragintillion Sexquardragintillion  

10279 duononagintillion sexquardragintilliard Sexquardragintilliarde  

10282 trenonagintillion septenquardragintillion Septenquardragintillion  

10285 quattuornonagintillion septenquardragintilliard Septenquardragintilliarde  

10288 quinnonagintillion octoquardragintillion Oktoquardragintillion  

10291 sexnonagintillion octoquardragintilliard Oktoquardragintilliarde  

10294 septnonagintillion,
septennonagintillion
novemquardragintillion Novemquardragintillion  

10297 octononagintillion novemquardragintilliard Novemquardragintilliarde  
10300 novemnonagintillionquinquagintillion Quinquagintillion  
10303 centillionquinquagintilliardQuinquagintilliarde 

.........
10600
centillionZentillion
10603 ducentillion

.........
10903 trecentillion

.........
10googol googolplexgoogolplexein Googolplex 1 followed by googol zeros
 
106n (2n-1)-illionn-illion
106n+3(2n)-illionn-illiard
 
  • 10n is called  n-plex
  • 10-n = 1 / 10n is called  n-minex

With this pattern we can build extremely large:
  • googolplex = 10googol
  • googolplexplex = 10googolplex
  • googolplexplexplex = 10googolplexplex
  • googolplexplexplexplex = 10googolplexplexplex
  • ...
... and small numbers:
  • googolminex = 1 / 10googol
  • googolplexminex = 1 / 10googolplex
  • googolplexplexminex = 1 / 10googolplexplex
  • googolplexplexplexminex = 1 / 10googolplexplexplex
  • ...
FrequencyType
5.8 GHzCordless Phones
5 GHzWi-Fi 802.11a (30 dBm)
2.45 GHzMicrowave Ovens (10 dBm)
2.45 GHzWi-Fi 802.11g (30 dBm)
2.45 GHzWi-Fi 802.11b (30 dBm)
2.45 GHzBluetooth
2.45 GHzCordless Phones
2.45 GHzBaby Monitors (10 dBm)
900 MHzCordless Phones


AbbreviationName
ROMRead Only Memory
RAMRandom Access Memory
SRAMStatic Random Access Memory
PSRAMPseudo Static Random Access Memory
VRAMVideo Random Access Memory
WRAMWindow Random Access Memory
DRAMDynamic Random Access Memory
eDRAMembedded Dynamic Random Access Memory
CDRAMCached Dynamic Random Access Memory
EDRAMEnhanced Dynamic Random Access Memory
FPM RAMFast Page Mode Random Access Memory
EDO DRAMExtended Data Out Dynamic Random Access Memory
BEDO DRAMBurst Extended Data Out Dynamic Random Access Memory
SDRAMSynchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory
SDR SDRAMSingle Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory
DDR SDRAMDouble Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory
DDR2 SDRAMDual Channel Double Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory
RDRAMRambus Dynamic Random Access Memory
DIMMDual-Inline Memory Module
SO-DIMMSmall Outline Dual-Inline Memory Module
RIMMRambus trademark for DRDRAM memory modules
CASColumn Address Strobe
ECCError Correction Code
FSBFront Side Bus
FBGAFine Ball Grid Array
ODTOn Die Termination
COBChip On Board
PCBPrinted Circuit Board
SoCSystem on Chip
NANDNot AND





NameMemory
PC6666MHz data rate, 66Mhz clock SDR SDRAM
PC100100MHz data rate, 100MHz clock SDR SDRAM
PC133133MHz data rate, 133MHz clock SDR SDRAM
PC800800MHz data rate, 400MHz clock RDRAM
PC10661066MHz data rate, 533MHz clock RDRAM
PC12001200MHz data rate, 600MHz clock RDRAM
PC13331333MHz data rate, 666MHz clock RDRAM
PC1600200MHz data rate, 100MHz clock DDR SDRAM
PC2100266MHz data rate, 133Mhz clock DDR SDRAM
PC2400300MHz data rate, 150Mhz clock DDR SDRAM
PC2700333MHz data rate, 166MHz clock DDR SDRAM
PC3000366MHz data rate, 183MHz clock DDR SDRAM
PC3200400MHz data rate, 200MHz clock DDR SDRAM
PC3500433MHz data rate DDR SDRAM
PC3700466MHz data rate DDR SDRAM
PC4000500MHz data rate DDR SDRAM
PC4200533MHz data rate DDR SDRAM
PC4300533MHz data rate DDR SDRAM
PC4400550MHz data rate DDR SDRAM
PC4500556MHz data rate DDR SDRAM
PC2-4200667Mhz data rate DDR2 SDRAM
PC2-4300533Mhz data rate DDR2 SDRAM
PC2-5200667Mhz data rate DDR2 SDRAM
PC2-5300667Mhz data rate DDR2 SDRAM
PC2-6400800Mhz data rate DDR2 SDRAM