Sayings of Buddha
|Dhammapada - Sayings of the Buddha (Translated by J. Richards)|
after oneself, like a wheel behind the feet of the animal drawing it.
Mind precedes its objects. They are mind-governed and mind-made. To speak or act with a peaceful mind, is to draw
happiness after oneself, like an inseparable shadow.
I have been insulted! I have been hurt! I have been beaten! I have been robbed! Anger does not cease in those who
harbour this sort of thought.
I have been insulted! I have been hurt! I have been beaten! I have been robbed! Anger ceases in those who do not
harbour this sort of thought.
Occasions of hatred are certainly never settled by hatred. They are settled by freedom from hatred. This is the eternal
Others may not understand that we must practice self-control, but quarrelling dies away in those who understand this
The Tempter masters the lazy and irresolute man who dwells on the attractive side of things, ungoverned in his senses,
and unrestrained in his food, like the wind overcomes a rotten tree.
But the Tempter cannot master a man who dwells on the distasteful side of things, self- controlled in his senses,
moderate in eating, resolute and full of faith, like the wind cannot move a mountain crag.
The man who wears the yellow-dyed robe but is not free from stains himself, without self- restraint and integrity, is
unworthy of the robe.
But the man who has freed himself of stains and has found peace of mind in an upright life, possessing self-restraint and
integrity, he is indeed worthy of the dyed robe.
To see the essence in the unessential and to see the essence as unessential means one can never get to the essence,
wandering as one is in the road of wrong intentions.
But to see the essence in the essential and the unessential as the unessential it is means one does get to the essence, being
on the road of right intentions.
In the same way that rain breaks into a house with a bad roof, desire breaks into the mind that has not been practising
While in the same way that rain cannot break into a well-roofed house, desire cannot break into a mind that has been
practising meditation well.
Here and beyond he suffers. The wrong-doer suffers both ways. He suffers and is tormented to see his own depraved
Here and beyond he is glad. The doer of good is glad both ways. He is glad and rejoices to see his own good deeds.
Here and beyond he is punished. The wrong-doer is punished both ways. He is punished by the thought, "I have done
evil", and is even more punished when he comes to a bad state.
Here and beyond he rejoices. The doer of good rejoices both way. He rejoices at the thought, "I have done good", and
rejoices even more when he comes to a happy state.
Even if he is fond of quoting appropriate texts, the thoughtless man who does not put them into practice himself is like
cowherd counting other people's cows, not a partner in the Holy Life.
Even if he does not quote appropriate texts much, if he follows the principles of the Teaching by getting rid of greed,
hatred and delusion, deep of insight and with a mind free from attachment, not clinging to anything in this world or the
next - that man is a partner in the Holy Life.
2. Attention Attention leads to immortality. Carelessness leads to death. Those who pay attention will not die, while the careless are as
good as dead already.
So having clearly understood the value of attention, wise men take pleasure in it, rejoicing in what the saints have
Those who meditate with perseverance, constantly working hard at it, are the wise who experience Nirvana, the ultimate
freedom from chains.
When a man is resolute and recollected, pure of deed and persevering, when he is attentive and self-controlled and lives
according to the Teaching, his reputation is bound to grow.
By resolution and attention, by discipline and self-control, a clever man may build himself an island that no flood can
Foolish, ignorant people indulge in careless lives, whereas a clever man guards his attention as his most precious
Don't indulge in careless behaviour. Don't be the friend of sensual pleasures. He who meditates attentively attains
When a wise man has carefully rid himself of carelessness and climbed the High Castle of Wisdom, sorrowless he
observes sorrowing people, like a clear-sighted man on a mountain top looking down on the people with limited vision on
the ground below.
Careful amidst the careless, amongst the sleeping wide-awake, the intelligent man leaves them all behind, like a
race-horse does a mere hack.
It was by attention that Indra attained the highest place among the gods. People approve of attention, while carelessness
is always condemned.
A bhikkhu taking pleasure in being attentive, and recognising the danger of carelessness, makes progress like a forest fire,
consuming all obstacles large or small in his way.
A bhikkhu taking pleasure in being attentive, and recognising the danger of carelessness, is incapable of falling away. In
fact he is already close to Nirvana.
3. Thoughts Elusive and unreliable as it is, the wise man straightens out his restless, agitated mind, like a fletcher crafting an arrow.
Trying to break out of the Tempter's control, one's mind writhes to and fro, like a fish pulled from its watery home onto
It is good to restrain one's mind, uncontrollable, fast moving, and following its own desires as it is. A disciplined mind
leads to happiness.
A wise man should guard his mind for it is very hard to keep track of, extremely subtle, and follows its own desires. A
guarded mind brings happiness.
The mind goes wandering off far and wide alone. Incorporeal, it dwells in the cavern of the heart. Those who keep it
under control escape from Mara's bonds.
If he is unsettled in mind, does not know the true Teaching, and has lost his peace of mind, a man's wisdom does not
come to fulfilment.
With his mind free from the inflow of thoughts and from restlessness, by abandoning both good and evil, an alert man
knows no fear.
Seeing your body as no better than an earthen pot, make war on Mara with the sword of wisdom, and setting up your
mind as a fortress, defend what you have won, remaining free from attachment.
Before long this body will be lying on the ground, discarded and unconscious, like a useless bit of wood.
One's own misdirected thought can do one more harm than an enemy or an ill-wisher.
Even your mother, father or any other relative cannot do you as much good as your own properly directed thought.
4. Flowers Who will master this world and the world of Death with its devas? Who will gather well taught aphorisms
(dhammapadas), like an connoisseur picking a flower?
A disciple will master this world and the world of Death with its devas. A disciple will gather well taught aphorisms
(dhammapadas), like a connoisseur picking a flower.
Seeing the foam-like nature of the body, and awakening to its mirage-like quality, one can escape the sight of the King of
Death, snapping Mara's flowery bonds.
Death carries off a man busy picking flowers with an besotted mind, like a great flood does a sleeping village.
Death, the end-maker, will exercise his will on a man busy picking flowers with a besotted mind, before he has even
A holy man should behave in the village like a bee which takes its food from a flower without hurting its appearance or its
It is no the shortcomings of others, nor what others have done or not done that one should think about, but what one has
done or not done oneself.
Like a fine flower, beautiful to look at but without scent, fine words are fruitless in a man who does not act in accordance
Like a fine flower, beautiful to look at and scented too, fine words bear fruit in a man who acts well in accordance with
Just as one can make a lot of garlands from a heap of flowers, so man, subject to birth and death as he is, should make
himself a lot of good karma.
The scent of flowers cannot travel against the wind, and nor can that of sandalwood or jasmine, but the fragrance of the
good does travel against the wind, and a good man perfumes the four quarters of the earth.
Sandalwood, tagara, lotus, jasmine - the fragrance of virtue is unrivalled by such kinds of perfume.
The perfume of tagara and sandalwood is of little enough power, while the supreme fragrance, that of the virtuous,
reaches even up to the devas.
Perfect of virtue, always acting with recollection, and liberated by final realisation - Mara does not know the path such
Like a beautiful, fragrant lotus, springing up on a pile of rubbish thrown out on the highway, so a disciple of the
Enlightened One stands out among rubbish-like and blinded ordinary people by virtue of his wisdom. 58,
the foolish, who have not recognised the true teaching.
If on one's way one does not come across one's better or an equal, then one should press on resolutely alone. There is no
companionship with a fool.
"I've got children", "I've got wealth." This is the way a fool brings suffering on himself. He does not even own himself,
so how can he have children or wealth?
A fool who recognises his own ignorance is thereby in fact a wise man, but a fool who considers himself wise - that is
what one really calls a fool.
Even if a fool lived with a wise man all his life, he would still not recognise the truth, like a wooden spoon cannot
recognise the flavour of the soup.
Even if a man of intelligence lives with a wise man only for a moment, he will immediately recognise the truth, like one's
tongue recognises the flavour of the soup.
Stupid fools go through life as their own enemies, doing evil deeds which have bitter consequences.
A deed is not well done if one suffers after doing it, if one bears the consequences sobbing and with tears streaming down
But a deed is well done if one does not suffer after doing it, if one experiences the consequences smiling and contented.
A fool thinks it like honey so long as the bad deed does not bear fruit, but when it does bear fruit he experiences
Even if a fool were to take his food month after month off the tip of a blade of grass, he would still not be worth a
fraction of those who have understood the truth.
Like fresh milk a bad deed does not turn at once. It follows a fool scorching him like a smouldering fire.
A fool acquires knowledge only to his own disadvantage. It destroys what good he has, and turns his brains.
One may desire a spurious respect and precedence among one's fellow monks, and the veneration of outsiders. "Both
monks and laity should think it was my doing. They should accept my authority in all matters great or small." This is a
fool's way of thinking. His self-seeking and conceit just increase. 73,
One way leads to acquisition, the other leads to nirvana. Realising this a monk, as a disciple of the Buddha, should take
no pleasure in the respect of others, but should devote himself to solitude.
6. The Wise Man Like one pointing out hidden treasure, if one finds a man of intelligence who can recognise one's faults and take one to
task for them, one should cultivate the company of such a wise man. He who cultivates a man like that is the better for it,
If a man disciplines, instructs and restrains them from what is not right, he will be dear to the good, and disliked by the
Don't cultivate the company of bad companions. Don't cultivate depraved men. Cultivate companions of good character.
Cultivate superior men.
He who drinks in the Truth will live happily with a peaceful mind. A wise man always delights in the Truth taught by the
Navvies channel water, fletchers fashion arrows, and carpenters work on wood, but the wise disciple themselves.
Like a solid rock is not shaken by the wind, so the wise are not moved by praise or blame.
The wise find peace on hearing the truth, like a deep, clear, undisturbed lake.
The good renounce everything. The pure don't babble about sensual desires. Whether touched by pleasure or pain, the
wise show no change of temper.
If a man does not seek children, wealth or power either for himself or for someone else, if he does not seek his own
advantage by unprincipled means, he is a virtuous man, a wise man and a righteous man.
Few are those among men who have crossed over to the other shore, while the rest of mankind runs along the bank.
However those who follow the principles of the well-taught Truth will cross over to the other shore, out of the dominion
of Death, hard though it is to escape. 85,
A wise man, abandoning the principle of darkness, should cultivate what is pure. Leaving home for the homeless life, let
him seek his joy in the solitude which people find so hard to enjoy, and, abandoning sensual pleasures, let him cleanse
himself of inner defilements, looking on nothing as his own. 87,
Those whose minds are thoroughly practices in the factors of enlightenment, who find delight in freedom from
attachment in the renunciation of clinging, free from the inflow of thoughts, they are like shining lights, having reached
final liberation in the world.
7. The Enlightened Journey over, sorrowless, freed in every way, and with all bonds broken - for such a man there is no more distress.
The recollected go forth to lives of renunciation. They take no pleasure in a fixed abode. Like wild swans abandoning a
pool, they leave one resting place after another.
Those for whom there is no more acquisition, who are fully aware of the nature of food, whose dwelling place is an
empty and imageless release - the way of such people is hard to follow, like the path of birds through the sky.
He whose inflowing thoughts are dried up, who is unattached to food, whose dwelling place is an empty and imageless
release - the way of such a person is hard to follow, like the path of birds through the sky.
When a man's senses have come to peace, like a horses well broken by the trainer, when he is rid of conceit and without
inflowing thoughts - even devas envy such a well set man.
Like the earth he is not disturbed, like a great pillar he is firmly set and reliable, like a lake he is free from defilement.
There are no more rebirths for such a well set man.
Freed by full realisation and at peace, the mind of such a man is at peace, and his speech and action peaceful.
He has no need for faith who knows the uncreated, who has cut off rebirth, who has destroyed any opportunity for good
or evil, and cast away all desire. He is indeed the ultimate man.
Whether in the village or the forest, whether on high ground or low, wherever the enlightened live, that is a delightful
Delightful for them are the forests where men find no delight. The desire-free find delight there, for they seek no sensual
8. The Thousands Better than a thousand pointless words is one saying to the point on hearing which one finds peace.
Better than a thousand pointless verses is one stanza on hearing which one finds peace.
Better than reciting a hundred pointless verses is one verse of the teaching (one dhammapada) on hearing which one finds
Though one were to defeat thousands upon thousands of men in battle, if another were to overcome just one - himself,
he is the supreme victor.
Victory over oneself is better than that over others. When a man has conquered himself and always acts with self-control,
neither devas, spirits, Mara or Brahma can reverse the victory of a man like that. 104,
Though one were to perform sacrifices by the thousand month after month for a hundred years, if another were to pay
homage to a single inwardly perfected man for just a moment, that homage is better than the hundred years of sacrifices.
Though one were to tend the sacrificial fire for a hundred years in the forest, if another were to pay homage to a single
inwardly perfected man for just a moment, that homage is better than the hundred years of sacrifice.
All the sacrifices and offerings a man desiring merit could make in a year in the world are not worth a quarter of the
better merit of homage to the righteous.
Four principal things increase in the man who is respectful and always honours his elders - length of life, good looks,
happiness and health.
Though one were to live a hundred years immoral and with a mind unstilled by meditation, the life of a single day is
better if one is moral and practises meditation.
Though one were to live a hundred years without wisdom and with a mind unstilled by meditation, the life of a single day
is better if one is wise and practises meditation.
Though one were to live a hundred years without seeing the rise and passing of things, the life of a single day is better if
one sees the rise and passing of things.
Though one were to live a hundred years without seeing the deathless state, the life of a single day is better if one sees
the deathless state.
Though one were to live a hundred years without seeing the supreme truth, the life of a single day is better if one sees the
9. Evil Be urgent in good; hold your thoughts off evil. When one is slack in doing good the mind delights in evil.
If a man has done evil, let him not keep on doing it. Let him not create an inclination to it. The accumulation of evil
If a man has done good, let him keep on doing it. Let him create an inclination to it. The accumulation of good means
An evil man encounters good so long as his evil behaviour does not bear fruit, but when his evil behaviour bears fruit,
then the evil man encounters the evil consequences.
An good man encounters evil so long as his good behaviour does not bear fruit, but when his good behaviour bears fruit,
then the good man encounters the good consequences.
Do not think lightly of evil that not the least consequence will come of it. A whole waterpot will fill up from dripping
drops of water. A fool fills himself with evil, just a little at a time.
Do not think lightly of good that not the least consequence will come of it. A whole waterpot will fill up from dripping
drops of water. A wise man fills himself with good, just a little at a time.
One should avoid evil like a merchant with much goods and only a small escort avoids a dangerous road, and like a man
who loves life avoids poison.
If there is no wound on one's hand, one can handle poison. Poison has no effect where there is no wound. There is no
evil for the non-doer.
Whoever does harm to an innocent man, a pure man and a faultless one, the evil comes back on that fool, like fine dust
thrown into the wind.
Some are reborn in a human womb, evil-doers go to hell, the good go to heaven, and those without inflowing thoughts
achieve final liberation.
Not in the sky, nor in the depths of the sea, nor hiding in the cleft of the rocks, there is no place on earth where one can
take one's stand to escape from an evil deed.
Not in the sky, nor in the depths of the sea, nor hiding in the cleft of the rocks, there is no place on earth where one can
take one's stand to not be overcome by death.
All fear violence, life is dear to all. Seeing the similarity to oneself, one should not use violence or have it used.
He who does violence to creatures seeking happiness like himself does not find happiness after death.
He who does no violence to creatures seeking happiness like himself does find happiness after death.
Don't speak harshly to anyone. If you do people will speak to you in the same way. Harsh words are painful and their
retaliation will hurt you.
If you don't disturb yourself, like a broken gong does not vibrate, then you have achieved nirvana. Irritability no longer
exists for you.
Like a cowherd driving cows off to the fields, so old age and death take away the years from the living.
Even when he is doing evil, the fool does not realise it. The idiot is punished by his own deeds, like one is scorched by
He who does violence to the peaceful and harmless soon encounters one of ten things - He may experience cruel pain,
disaster, physical injury, severe illness, or insanity, or else trouble with the authorities, grave accusation, bereavement, or
loss of property, or else destruction of his house by fire, and on the death of his body the fool goes to hell. 137, 138,
Neither naked asceticism, matted hair, dirt, fasting, sleeping on the ground, dust and mud, nor prolonged sitting on one's
heels can purify a man who is not free of doubts.
Even if richly dressed, when a man behaves even-mindedly and is at peace, restrained and established in the right way,
chaste and renouncing violence to all forms of life, then he is a brahmin, he is a holy man, he is a bhikkhu (true Buddhist
Where is that man in the world who is so restrained by shame that he avoids laziness like a thoroughbred horse avoids
Like a thoroughbred horse touched by the whip, be strenuous and determined. Then you will be able to rid yourself of
this great suffering by means of faith, morality, energetic behaviour, stillness of mind and reflection on the teaching, after
you have become full of wisdom, good habits and recollection.
Navies channel water, fletchers fashion arrows, and carpenters work on wood, but the good disciple themselves.
11. Old Age What is this laughter, what is this delight, forever burning (with desires) as you are? Enveloped in darkness as you are,
will you not look for a lamp?
Look at the decorated puppet, a mass of wounds and of composite parts, full of disease and always in need of attention.
It has no enduring stability.
This body is worn out with age, a nest of diseases and falling apart. The mass of corruption disintegrates, and death is the
end of life.
When these grey bones are cast aside like gourds in autumn, what pleasure will there be in looking at them?
It is a city built of bones, and daubed with flesh and blood, in which old age and death, pride and hypocrisy are the
Even kings' splendid carriages wear out, and the body is certain bound to grow old, but the Truth found by the saints is
not subject to aging. That is what the saints themselves proclaim.
An ignorant man ages like an ox. His flesh may increase, but not his understanding.
I have passed in ignorance through a cycle of many rebirths, seeking the builder of the house. Continuous rebirth is a
painful thing. But now, housebuilder, I have found you out. You will not build me a house again. All your rafters are
broken, your ridge-pole shattered. My mind is free from active thought, and has made an end of craving. 153,
Those who have not lived the holy life, and have not acquired wealth in their youth, grow old like withered cranes beside
a fishless pool.
Those who have not lived the holy life, and have not acquired wealth in their youth, lie like spent arrows, grieving for
12. Self Knowing that one is dear to oneself, one should guard oneself well. For one out of the three watches of the night a wise
man should keep watch.
First he should establish himself in what is right. Then if he teaches others, the wise man will not be corrupted.
If one would only apply to oneself what one teaches others, when one was well disciplined oneself one could train others.
It is oneself who is hard to train.
One is one's own guardian. What other guardian could one have? With oneself well disciplined one obtains a rare
The evil he has done himself and which had its origin and being in himself breaks a fool, like a diamond breaks a precious
A man of great immorality is like a creeper, suffocating the tree it is on. He does to himself just what an enemy would
Things which are wrong and to one's own disadvantage are easily enough done, while what is both good and
advantageous is extremely hard to do.
The fool, who out of attachment to a wrong view speaks ill of the religion of the enlightened and noble ones who live
according to truth, brings forth fruit to his own downfall, like the offspring of the bamboo.
By oneself one does evil. By oneself one is defiled. By oneself one abstains from evil. By oneself one is purified. Purity
and impurity are personal matters. No one can purify someone else.
One should not neglect one's own welfare for that of someone else, however great. When one has understood what one's
own welfare really consists of, one should apply oneself to that welfare.
13. The World Don't practice an ignoble way of life, don't indulge in a careless attitude. Don't follow a wrong view, and don't be
attached to the world.
Wake up and don't be careless, but lead a life of well-doing. He who follows righteousness lives happily in this world and
Lead a life of righteousness, and not a life of wrong-doing. He who follows righteousness lives happily in this world and
Look on the world as a bubble, look on it as a mirage. The King of Death never finds him who views the world like that.
Come, look at the world as a gilded royal carriage, in which fools get bogged down, while men of understanding have no
attachment to it.
Even if previously careless, when a man later stops being careless, he illuminates the world, like the moon breaking away
from a cloud.
When a man's bad deeds are covered over by good ones, he illuminates the world, like the moon breaking away from a
Blinded indeed is this world. Few are those who see the truth. Like a bird breaking out of the net, few are those who go
Wild swans take the path of the sun. Men with powers travel through space, but the wise step right out of the world, by
conquering Mara and his host.
When a man has already violated one rule, when he is a liar and rejects the idea of a future world, there is no evil he is
not capable of.
Miserly people certainly do not go to heaven. Fools for sure do not praise generosity, but the wise man who takes
pleasure in giving is thereby happy hereafter.
Better than being sole king of the whole earth, better than going to heaven or sovereignty over the whole universe is the
fruit of becoming a stream-winner.
14. The Buddhas He whose victory is not relost, and whose victory no-one in the world can take away, that Buddha, whose home is in the
infinite, pathless as he is, by what path will you lead him?
He who has no entrapping, clinging desire to lead him in any direction, that Buddha, whose home is in the infinite,
pathless as he is, by what path will you lead him?
Those wise men, who are much given to meditation and find pleasure in the peace of a spiritual way of life, even the
devas envy them perfect Buddhas and recollected as they are.
A human birth is hard to achieve. Difficult is the life of mortals. To hear the true teaching is difficult, and the
achievement of Buddhahood is difficult.
To abstain from all evil, the practice of good, and the thorough purification of one's mind - this is the teaching of the
Long-suffering patience is the supreme ascetic practice. Nirvana is supreme, say the Buddhas. He is certainly not an
ascetic who hurts others, and nor is he a man of religion who causes suffering to others.
Not to speak harshly and not to harm others, self restraint in accordance with the rules of the Order, moderation in food,
a secluded dwelling, and the cultivation of the higher levels of consciousness - this is the teaching of the Buddhas.
There is no satisfying the senses, not even with a shower of money. "The senses are of slight pleasure and really
suffering." When a wise man has realised this, he takes no pleasure, as a disciple of the Buddhas, even in the pleasures of
heaven. Instead he takes pleasure in the elimination of craving. 186,
Driven by fear, men take to many a refuge, in mountains, forests, parks, sacred groves and shrines, but these are not a
secure kind of refuge. By taking to this sort of refuge one is not released from suffering. He who has gone to Buddha,
Dhamma and Sangha for refuge, though, and who with true wisdom understands the Four Noble Truths of Suffering, the
Origin of Suffering, the End of Suffering and the Noble Eightfold Path, leading to the Elimination of Suffering, this is a
secure refuge, this is the ultimate refuge; by taking to this refuge one is indeed released from all suffering. 188, 189, 190,
A truly thoroughbred man (a Buddha) is hard to find. He is not born anywhere, but where that seer is born, the people
Happy is the attainment of Buddhahood, happy the teaching of the true Teaching, happy is the concord of the Sangha,
happy the training of those in concord.
When a man venerates those worthy of veneration, be they Buddhas or their disciples, who have transcended all
obstacles and passed beyond sorrow and tears - venerating such as these, whose passions are extinguished and for whom
there is no further source for fear, no one can calculate how great his merit is. 195,
Happy indeed we live who are free from disease among those still diseased. In the midst of diseased men, we live free
Happy indeed we live who are free from worry among those who are still worried. In the midst of worried men, we live
free from worry.
Happy indeed we live who have nothing of our own. We shall feed on joy, just like the radiant devas.
A victor only breeds hatred, while a defeated man lives in misery, but a man at peace within lives happily, abandoning up
ideas of victory and defeat.
There is no fire like desire. There is no weakness like anger. There is no suffering like the khandhas. There is no
happiness greater than peace.
Hunger is the supreme disease. Mental activity is the supreme suffering. When one has grasped this as it really is, nirvana
is the supreme happiness.
Health is the supreme possession. Contentment is the supreme wealth. A trustworthy friend is the supreme relation.
Nirvana is the supreme happiness.
After enjoying the taste of solitude and the taste of peace, one is freed from distress and evil, as one enjoys the taste of
It is good to meet with the saints. Living with them is always sweet. By not meeting fools one can be happy all the time.
A man who keeps company with a fool, will suffer for it a long time. It is always painful to live with fools, like with an
enemy, but a wise man is good to live with, like meeting up with relatives.
Therefore, if he is a man of understanding and penetration, learned and habitually moral, devout and noble, one should
cultivate the company of that just and wise man, in the same way as the moon keeps to a path among the stars.
16. Preference He who applies himself to what is not really an appropriate subject for application, and fails to apply himself to what is,
missing the real purpose to grasp after what appeals to him, may well envy the man who does apply himself.
Never have anything to do with likes and dislikes. The absence of what one likes is painful, as is the presence of what
Therefore don't take a liking to anything. To lose what one likes is hard, but there are no bonds for those who have no
likes and dislikes.
From preference arises sorrow, from preference arises fear, but he who is freed from preference has no sorrow and
certainly no fear.
From affection arises sorrow, from affection arises fear, but he who is freed from affection has no sorrow and certainly
From pleasure arises sorrow, from pleasure arises fear, but he who is freed from pleasure has no sorrow and certainly no
From sensuality arises sorrow, from sensuality arises fear, but he who is freed from sensuality has no sorrow and
certainly no fear.
From craving arises sorrow, from craving arises fear, but he who is freed from craving has no sorrow and certainly no
Well may people hold dear the man who is endowed with morality and insight, who is well established in righteousness, a
seer of the truth, and applying himself to his own business.
He whose longing has been aroused for the indescribable, whose mind has been quickened by it, and whose thought is
not attached to sensuality is truly called one who is bound upstream.
When a man who has been away a long time at last comes home safely from far away, his family, friends and
acquaintances rejoice to see him back. In the same way, when a man who has done good goes from this world to the
next, his good deeds receive him like relations welcoming a loved one back again. 219,
17. Anger Abandon anger, give up pride, and overcome all fetters. Suffering does nor befall him who is without attachment to
names and forms, and possesses nothing of his own.
When a man governs his rising anger like a chariot going out of control, that is what I call a charioteer. The rest are just
holding the reins.
Overcome anger with freedom from anger. Overcome evil with good. Overcome meanness with generosity, and
overcome a liar with truthfulness.
Speak the truth, don't get angry, and always give, even if only a little, when you are asked. By these three principles you
can come into the company of the devas.
Those sages who do harm to no-one, and who are always physically restrained, go to the everlasting abode, reaching
which they will face no more suffering.
Inflowing thoughts come to an end in those who are ever alert of mind, training themselves night and day, and ever intent
It was so of old, Atula. It is not just so today. They criticise him who sits in silence, they criticise him who talks a lot.
They even criticise him who speaks in moderation. There is not a man in the world who is not criticised.
There never has been, there never will be, and there is not now any man exclusively criticised or exclusively praised.
If a wise man of unblemished behaviour and endowed with wisdom, morality and stillness of mind, is praised by the
discriminating after day in day out acquaintance with him, like a pure gold coin, then who is fit to find fault with him?
Even the King of the devas praises him. 229,
Guard against physical unruliness. Be restrained in body. Abandoning physical wrong doing, lead a life of physical well
Guard against mental unruliness. Be restrained in mind. Abandoning mental wrong doing, lead a life of mental well doing.
Guard against verbal unruliness. Be restrained in speech. Abandoning verbal wrong doing, lead a life of verbal well doing.
The wise who are restrained in body, speech and mind - such are the well and truly restrained.
18. Faults You are now like a withered leaf. Death's messengers themselves are in your presence. You are standing in the jaws of
your departure, and provisions for the road you have none.
In such a case, build yourself an island. Make the effort quickly and become a wise man. Cleansed of your faults and
now without blemish, you will go to the heavenly land of the saints.
You are now at your life's conclusion. You are in the presence of the King of Death. There is no stopping off place on
the way, and provisions for the road you have none.
In such a case, build yourself an island. Make the effort quickly and become a wise man. Cleansed of your faults and
now without blemish, you will come no more to birth and aging.
Little by little, moment by moment, a wise man should cleanse himself of blemishes, like a smith purifying silver.
Just as the rust which develops on iron, derives from it but then proceeds to eat it away, so a person of unrestrained
behaviour is drawn to hell by his own actions.
Lack of repetition is the blight of scriptures. Lack of repairs is the blight of buildings. The blight of beauty is laziness, and
carelessness is the blight of a guard.
The blight of a woman is misconduct. The blight of a giver is meanness. Bad mental states are indeed blights in this world
and the next.
But the supreme bight, ignorance, is the blight of blights. Destroying this blight, be free of blights, bhikkhus.
Life is easy enough for the shameless, the crow-hero type of man, offensive, swaggering, impudent and depraved. But it
is hard for the man of conscience, always striving after purity, alert, reserved, pure of behaviour and discerning. 244, 245
When a man takes life, tells lies, takes what he is not entitled to in the world, resorts to other men's wives and indulges in
drinking wine and spirits - such a man is digging up his own roots here and now in this world. 246,
So understand this, my man - Unrestrained men are evil. Don't let greed and wrong doing subject you to lasting suffering.
People give according to their faith, or as they feel well disposed. If one is put out for that reason with other people's
food and drink, then one will not achieve stillness of mind in meditation, day or night. But he who has destroyed that sort
of reaction, has rooted it out and done away with it - he will achieve stillness of mind in meditation, day and night.
There is no fire like desire. There is no hold like anger. There is no net like ignorance. There is no river like craving.
Other people's faults are easily seen. One can winnow out other people's faults like chaff. One hides one's own faults
though, like a dishonest gambler hides an unlucky throw.
When one notices the mistakes of others and is always finding fault with them, the inflow of one's thoughts just increases
and one is a long way from the cessation of this influx.
Just as there is no path in the sky, there is no man of religion outside. Other people take pleasure in multiplicity, but the
Buddhas are free from it.
Just as there is no path in the sky, there is no man of religion outside. There are no lasting functions of the mind, but
there is no oscillation of mind for the Buddhas.
19. The Righteous One is not righteous if one decides a case without due consideration, but the wise man who takes into account both for
and against, and comes to his decision about others with due consideration - such a man of discrimination who keeps to
the truth, he is to be called righteous. 256,
One is not a learned man by virtue of much speaking. He who is patient, without anger and fearless, he is to be called
One is not a bearer of the teaching by virtue of much speaking, but he who, even if he has only studied a little, has
experienced the truth in person, he is indeed a bearer of the teaching, who has not forgotten the teaching.
One is not an elder by virtue of having white hair. One is just advanced in years, and called "grown old in vain". He in
whom there is truthfulness, non violence, restraint and self control, however - that wise and faultless sage is to be called
an elder. 260,
It is not just by fine speech or by flower-like beauty that one is admirable, if one is envious, mean and deceitful, but
when that sort of behaviour has been eliminated, rooted out and destroyed, that faultless sage is said to be admirable.
A shaven head does not make one a man of religion, if one is irreligious and untruthful. How could a man full of desires
and greed be a man of religion? But when a man has put aside all evil deeds, both great and small, by that putting away
of evil deeds he is indeed called a man of religion. 264,
One is not a bhikkhu by virtue of taking alms from others. By taking up any old teaching, one is not a bhikkhu on that
account. But he who has here and now ejected both good and evil, and in leading the holy life lives in accordance with
reason - he is indeed called a bhikkhu. 266,
Silence does not make a sage if he is stupid and ignorant, but when a man avoids evil as if he were choosing something of
value on the scales - he is a sage. That indeed makes him a sage. He who discriminates in both worlds is for that reason
called a sage. 268,
One is not noble if one harms other living creatures. It is by non violence to all forms of life that one is called noble.
It is not just by means of morality and religious observances, not by great learning nor by attainments in meditation, nor
by living alone, nor by thinking,"I am enjoying a spiritual happiness which ordinary people do not know" that a bhikkhu
achieves peace if he has not achieved the elimination of inflowing thoughts. 271,
beings the best is the seer.
This indeed is the Way - there is no other - for the purification of one's vision. Follow this way. It leads to Mara's
Following this Path you will put an end to suffering. I have taught you the Way after realising the removal of the arrow
Making the effort is your affair. The Buddhas have pointed out the Way. Those who are on the way and practising
meditation will be freed from Mara's bonds.
All processes are impermanent. When one sees this with understanding, then one is disillusioned with the things of
suffering. This is the Path of Purification.
All processes are painful. When one sees this with understanding, then one is disillusioned with the things of suffering.
This is the Path of Purification.
All processes are out of my control. When one sees this with understanding, then one is disillusioned with the things of
suffering. This is the Path of Purification.
Since he will not exert himself at the time for exertion, and although young and strong is full of indolence and irresolution
and idleness, the lazy man is incapable of recognising the way of wisdom.
Be guarded in speech, restrained of mind and not doing anything wrong physically. Perfect these three forms of action,
and fulfil the way taught by the sages.
>From meditation springs wisdom. From lack of meditation, loss of wisdom. Recognising these alternative roads of
progress and decline, one should so direct oneself so that one's wisdom will increase.
Cut down the forest, not just a tree. Out of the forest of desire springs danger. By cutting down both the forest of desire
and the brushwood of longing, be rid of the forest (pun on the word "nirvana"), bhikkhus.
So long as the least desire of a man for women has not been eradicated, he is fettered in mind, like a sucking calf to its
Pluck out your desire, like one does an autumn lotus with one's hand. Devote yourself to the path of peace, the nirvana
proclaimed by the Blessed One.
"Here I will spend the rainy season, and here the hot season." This is the way a fool thinks. It does not occur to him what
may happen in between.
Death comes and snatches away the man infatuated with children and livestock, while his mind is still full of desire, like a
great flood sweeping away a sleeping village.
There are no children to take refuge in then, no father or any other relative. When a man is seized by that terminator,
Death, there is no taking refuge in family.
When he has seen the implications of this, a wise man, restrained by morality, should quickly develop the path leading to
21. Miscellaneous If he sees that by sacrificing a slight happiness he can obtain a greater happiness, then a wise man should sacrifice the
lesser happiness with a view to the greater happiness.
He who seeks his own happiness by inflicting suffering on others, does not reach freedom from hatred, caught as he is in
the toils of hatred.
What IS their affair is put aside. What is NOT their affair gets done. The inflow of thoughts in such brazen and careless
people just goes on increasing. They whose recollection of the body is always well established, however, have nothing to
do with what is not their affair, always persevering in what IS their affair. The inflow of thoughts in such recollected and
aware people simply dies away. 292,
After killing mother (desire), father ("I am" conceit) and two warrior kings, and destroying the kingdom along with its
subjects, the brahmin goes on his way unperturbed.
After killing mother, father and two priestly kings, and killed a tiger as his fifth victim, the brahmin goes on his way
A good awakening have ever Gotama's disciples, whose recollection is always established, day and night on the Buddha.
A good awakening have ever Gotama's disciples, whose recollection is always established, day and night on the Teaching.
A good awakening have ever Gotama's disciples, whose recollection is always established, day and night on the Order.
A good awakening have ever Gotama's disciples, whose recollection is always established, day and night on the body.
A good awakening have ever Gotama's disciples, whose minds are always rejoicing in non violence.
A good awakening have ever Gotama's disciples, whose minds are always rejoicing in the practice of meditation.
It is hard to take up a life of renunciation, and difficult to find satisfaction in it, but it is also difficult to live in bad
households, and painful to live with people unlike oneself, when one is forever tangled in suffering and restless.
Therefore don't always be restless, and don't let yourself be tangled in suffering.
When a man has faith, is endowed with virtue, and possessed of fame and wealth, wherever he lives he will be honoured.
The good are conspicuous a long way off, like a Himalayan peak, while the bad are just not noticed, like arrows shot into
Living alone, sleeping alone, travelling alone, and resolute, alone and self disciplined, should take pleasure in living in the
22. Hell He who speaks untruth goes to hell, as does he who, having done something, says, "I didn't do it." Men of ignoble
behaviour, they both end up the same in the next world.
Many of those dressed in the yellow robe are evil and unrestrained, and the evil end up in hell because of their evil deeds.
It is better to swallow a red-hot, flaming iron ball than for an unrestrained and immoral person to eat the alms food of the
The thoughtless man who consorts with another man's wife encounters four things - accumulation of demerit, disturbed
sleep, thirdly disgrace, and hell fourth.
Accumulation of demerit, a bad rebirth and the slight pleasure of a frightened man and a frightened woman - while the
authorities impose a severe penalty too. Therefore a man should not consort with another man's wife.
In the same way that a wrongly handled blade of grass will cut one's hand, so a badly fulfilled life in religion will drag one
down to hell.
Lax behaviour, broken observances and dubious chastity - these are on no great benefit.
If it ought to be done, then do it; apply yourself to it strenuously. A lax man of religion just spreads even more dust.
A bad action is best left undone. One is punished later for a bad action. But a good deed is best done, for which one will
not be punished for doing it.
Guard yourself like a frontier town, guarded inside and out. Don't let a moment slip you by. Those who have missed
their opportunity grieve for it when they end up in hell.
Ashamed of what is not a matter for shame, and not ashamed of what is, by holding to wrong views people go to a bad
Seeing danger where there is no danger, and not seeing danger where there is, by holding to wrong views people go to a
Seeing a fault in what is not a fault, and not seeing a fault in what is, by holding to wrong views people go to a bad
Recognising a fault as a fault, and what is not a fault as not one, by holding to right views people go to a good rebirth.
23. The Elephant I will bear criticism like an elephant in battle bears an arrow from a bow. Most people are bad behaviour.
One can take a trained elephant even into a crowd. The king himself will ride a trained elephant. He who is disciplined is
the best of men, since he can bear criticism.
Trained mules are excellent, and so are thoroughbred horses from the Sindh, and so are great battle elephants, but more
excellent than them all is a disciplined man.
There is no reaching the unattainable with mounts like these, but with himself well under control a disciplined man can
Dhammapalo, the elephant, is hard to control in rut. Even when tied up, he refuses his food. The great tusker is thinking
of the elephant forest.
When a man is a lie-abed and over-eats, a lazy person who wallows in sleep like a great over-fed hog, a fool like that will
be reborn time after time.
My mind used formerly to go off wandering wherever it felt like, following its own inclination, but today I shall control it
carefully, like a mahout does a rutting elephant.
Take pleasure in being careful. Guard your mind well. Extricate yourself from the mire, like a great tusker sunk in the
If you find an intelligent companion, a wise and well-behaved person going the same way as yourself, then go along with
him, overcoming all dangers, pleased at heart and mindful.
But if you do not find an intelligent companion, a wise and well-behaved person going the same way as yourself, then go
on your way alone, like a king abandoning a conquered kingdom, or like a great elephant in the deep forest.
It is better to travel alone. There is no companionship with a fool. Go on your way alone and commit no evil, without
cares like a great elephant in the deep forest.
It is good to have companions when occasion arises, and it is good to be contented with whatever comes. Merit is good at
the close of life, and the elimination of all suffering is good.
Good is filial devotion to one's mother in the world, and devotion to one's father is good. It is good to be a sanyasi in the
world and to be a brahmin too.
Good is good behaviour up to old age, good is firmly established faith, good is the acquisition of understanding, and
abstention from evil is good.
24. Craving The desire of a thoughtlessly living man grows like a creeper. He drifts from one life to another like a monkey looking for
fruit in the forest.
When one is overcome by this wretched, clinging desire in the world, one's sorrows increase like grass growing up after a
lot of rain.
But when one masters this wretched desire, which is so hard to overcome, then one's sorrows just drop off, like a drop
of water off a lotus.
This is what I say to you - Good luck be with you, gathered here. Dig up the root of craving, as one does a weed for its
fragrant root. Don't let Mara destroy you again and again, like a stream does its reeds.
In the same way that even a felled tree will grow again if its root is strong and undamaged, so if latent desire has not been
rooted out, then suffering shoots up again and again.
When the thirty six pleasure-bound streams of craving are strong in a man, then numerous desire-based thoughts pull the
deluded man along.
The streams (of craving) flow everywhere, and the creeper hoots up and establishes itself, so when you see the creeper
shooting up, cut away its root with your understanding.
The recollection and attraction of pleasures occur to a man, and those who are attached to the agreeable and seeking
enjoyment, they are the people subject to birth and aging.
People beset by desire run here and there, like a snared rabbit, and those trapped in the bonds of attachments keep
returning for a long time to suffering.
People beset by desire run here and there, like a snared rabbit, so one should get rid of one's craving if it is freedom from
desire that one wants.
When a man out of the forest of desire is drawn back into the forest, then free from the forest as he is, he runs back into
it. Look at him - free, he is running back to chains.
The wise say that it is not an iron, wooden or fibre fetter which is a strong one, but the besotted hankering after trinkets,
children and wives, that, say the wise, is the strong fetter. It drags one down, and loose as it feels, it is hard to break.
Breaking this fetter, people renounce the world, free from longing and abandoning sensuality. 345,
Those on fire with desire follow the stream of their desires, like a spider follows the strands of its self-made web.
Breaking the bond, the wise walk on free from longing, and leaving all suffering behind.
Let go the past, let go the future, and let go what is in between, transcending the things of time. With your mind free in
every direction, you will not return to birth and aging.
When a man is stimulated by his own thoughts, full of desire and dwelling on what is attractive, his craving increases
even more. He is making the fetter even stronger. But he who takes pleasure in stilling his thoughts, practising the
contemplation of what is repulsive, and remaining recollected, now he will make an end of craving, he will snap the
bonds of Mara. His aim is accomplished, he is without fear, rid of craving and without stain. He has removed the arrows
of changing existence. This is his last body. 349, 350,
Rid of craving and without clinging, an expert in the study of texts, and understanding the right sequence of the words, he
may indeed be called "In his last body", "Great in wisdom" and a "Great man".
All-conquering and all-knowing am I. Amidst all states of mind, unaffected am I. By abandoning everything, I am
liberated by the cessation of desire. Having achieved Realisation by myself, who should I point to as my teacher?
The gift of the Truth beats all other gifts. The flavour of the Truth beats all other tastes. The joy of the Truth beats all
other joys, and the cessation of desire conquers all suffering.
Riches destroy a fool, but not those who are seeking the other shore. The fool destroys himself by his craving for riches,
as he destroys others too.
Weeds are the blight of fields. Desire is the blight of mankind. Consequently offerings to those free from desire are of
Weeds are the blight of fields. Anger is the blight of mankind. Consequently offerings to those free from anger are of
Weeds are the blight of fields. Delusion is the blight of mankind. Consequently offerings to those free from delusion are
of great fruit.
Weeds are the blight of fields. Self-seeking is the blight of mankind. Consequently offerings to those free from
self-seeking are of great fruit.
Restraint of the body is good. So is restraint of speech. Restraint of mind is good, and so is restraint in everything. The
bhikkhu who is restrained in everything, is freed from all suffering.
Restrained of hand, restrained of foot, restrained of speech and restrained in his highest faculty, with his joy turned
inwards, his mind still, alone and contented - that is what they call a bhikkhu.
When a bhikkhu is restrained of tongue, quotes wise sayings, and is peaceful, expounding both letter and spirit - his
speech is good to hear.
With joy in the Teaching, delighting in the Teaching, and pondering over the Teaching, the bhikkhu who remembers the
Teaching does not fall away from the Teaching.
One should not underestimate what one has got, and one should not live envying others. A bhikkhu who envies others
does not achieve stillness of mind in meditation.
Even if he has only received a little, if a bhikkhu does not look down on what he has received, even the devas praise him,
pure of life and determined as he is.
When a man is without self-identification with any object or idea, and does not grieve for what does not exist - that is
what is called a bhikkhu.
The bhikkhu who lives full of goodwill, with faith in the religion of the Buddha - he will reach the place of peace, the
satisfaction of stilling the functions of the mind.
Empty the boat, bhikkhu. Empty it will sail lightly for you. When you have cut away desire and aversion, you will come
to nirvana as a result.
Cut away the five (lower fetters), abandon the five (remaining fetters), and then develop the five (faculties). The bhikkhu
who has transcended the five fetters is said to be "crossed over the flood".
Meditate, bhikkhu, don't be careless, don't let your mind take pleasure in the senses. Don't have to swallow the iron ball
for being careless. Don't have to cry out, "This is terrible" as you burn.
There is no meditation without wisdom, and there is no wisdom without meditation. When a man has both meditation
and wisdom, he is indeed close to nirvana.
When he has gone off to a lonely building, the bhikkhu whose mind is at peace experiences a more than human joy,
when he recognises the supreme Truth.
Whenever he meditates on the rise and fall of the constituent elements of existence, he experiences joy and rapture. It is
immortality for men of discrimination.
Therefore in this religion, this is what comes first for a wise bhikkhu - guarding of the senses, contentment, and discipline
in accordance with the rules of the Order. He should cultivate friends of good character, of pure behaviour and resolute.
He should be friendly in his manner, and well-behaved. As a result he will experience great joy, and put an end to
In the same way that the jasmine drops its withered flowers, you too should discard desire and aversion, bhikkhus.
Peaceful of body, peaceful of speech and with his mind thoroughly stilled, the bhikkhu who has rid himself of attachment
to the world - is called "at peace".
You should encourage yourself, yourself. You should restrain yourself, yourself. When you are self-protected like that,
you will live happily as a bhikkhu.
One is one's own guard. What other guard could one have? One is one's own destiny. Therefore one should train oneself,
like a merchant does a thoroughbred horse.
The bhikkhu who experiences great joy, and has faith in the religion of the Buddha, will attain the place of peace, the
satisfaction of stilling the functions of the mind.
When a bhikkhu applies himself when still young to the religion of the Buddha, he illuminates the world, like the moon
breaking breaking away from a cloud.
26. The Brahmin Cut the stream and go across, abandon sensuality, brahmin. When you have achieved the stilling of the activities of the
mind, you will know the unconditioned, brahmin.
When a brahmin has crossed beyond duality, then all the fetters of such a seer come to an end.
When a man knows no this shore, other shore, or both - such a one, free from anxiety, liberated, that is what I call a
Meditating, free from stain, settled in mind, with job accomplished, without inflowing thoughts, and having achieved the
supreme purpose - that is what I call a brahmin.
By day it is the sun which shines, at night the moon shines forth. A warrior shines in his armour, and a brahmin shines in
meditation. But at all times, by day and by night, the Buddha shines in his glory.
A brahmin is called so by breaking with evil deeds. It is by pious behaviour that a man is called a man of religion, and by
casting out blemishes one is called one gone forth.
One should not strike a brahmin, and nor should a brahmin lose his temper. Shame on him who strikes a brahmin, and
shame on him who loses his temper because of it.
Nothing is better in a brahmin than this - that he restrains his mind from pleasurable things. Suffering disappears for him
to the same extent that he gets rid of thoughts of harming anyone.
He who does no wrong with body, speech or mind, but is restrained in all three spheres - that is what I call a brahmin.
One should reverently pay homage to the man from whom one has learned the Truth, taught by the True Buddha, like a
brahmin does to the sacrificial fire.
One is not a brahmin by virtue of matted hair, lineage or caste. When a man possesses both Truth and truthfulness, then
he is pure, then he is a brahmin.
What use is your matted hair, you fool? What use is your antelope skin? You are tangled inside, and you are just making
the outside pretty.
The man who wears robes made from rags off the dust heap, who is gaunt, with his sinews standing out all over his
body, alone meditating in the forest - that is what I call a brahmin.
I do not call him a brahmin who is so by natural birth from his mother. He is just a supercilious person if he still has
possessions of his own. He who owns nothing of his own, and is without attachment - that is what I call a brahmin.
He who, having cut off all fetters, does not get himself upset, but is beyond bonds - that liberated man is what I call a
He who has cut off both bond and strap, halter as well as bridle, who has removed the barrier, himself a Buddha - that is
what I call a brahmin.
He who endures undisturbed criticism, ill-treatment and bonds, strong in patience, and that strength his power - that is
what I call a brahmin.
Without anger, devout, upright, free from craving, disciplined and in his last body - that is what I call a brahmin.
Like water on a lotus leaf, like a mustard seed on the point of an pin, he who is not stuck to the senses - that is what I
call a brahmin.
He who has experienced the end of his suffering here in this life, who has set down the burden, freed! - that is what I call
The sage of profound wisdom, the expert in the right and wrong road, he who has achieved the supreme purpose - that is
what I call a brahmin.
Not intimate with laity or monks, wandering about with no abode, and few needs - that is what I call a brahmin.
Abandoning violence to all living creatures moving or still, he who neither kills or causes killing - that is what I call a
Unagitated amongst the agitated, at peace among the violent, without clinging among those who cling - that is what I call
He from whom desire and aversion, conceit and hypocrisy have fallen away, like a mustard seed on the point of a pin -
that is what I call a brahmin.
He who utters only gentle, instructive and truthful speech, criticising no-one - that is what I call a brahmin.
He who takes nothing in the world that has not been given him, long or short, big or small, attractive or that is what I call
He who has no desires in this world or the next, without longings, freed! - that is what I call a brahmin.
He who has no attachments and has been freed from uncertainty by realisation, who has plunged into the deathless - that
is what I call a brahmin.
He who has even here and now transcended the fetter of both good and evil, who is sorrowless, faultless and pure - that
is what I call a brahmin.
The man who is stainless, pure, clear and free from impurities like the moon, the search for pleasure extinguished - that is
what I call a brahmin.
He who has transcended the treacherous mire of samsara and ignorance, who has crossed over, reached the other shore,
meditating, motionless of mind, free from uncertainty, and who is at peace by not clinging to anything - that is what I call
He who by here and now abandoning sensuality, has gone forth a homeless wanderer, the search for pleasure
extinguished - that is what I call a brahmin.
He who by here and now abandoning craving, has gone forth a homeless wanderer, the search for pleasure extinguished -
that is what I call a brahmin.
He who has abandoned human bonds, and transcended those of heaven, liberated from all bonds - that is what I call a
He who has abandoned pleasure and displeasure, is cooled off and without further fuel, the hero who has conquered all
worlds - that is what I call a brahmin.
He who has seen the passing away and rebirth of all beings, free of clinging, blessed, awakened - that is what I call a
He whose path devas, spirits and men cannot know, whose inflowing thoughts are ended, a saint - that is what I call a
He who has nothing of his own, before, after or in between, possessionless and without attachment - that is what I call a
Bull-like, noble, a hero, a great sage, and a conqueror, he who is motionless of mind, washed clean and awakened - that
is what I call a brahmin.
He who has known his former lives and can see heaven and hell themselves, while he has attained the extinction of
rebirth, a seer, master of transcendent knowledge, and master of all masteries - that is what I call a brahmin.